4) Aperture Size and Depth of Field

Depth of field describes the sharpness of the image produced, from the foreground of the image to the background.

A shallow depth of field is associated with a large aperture. The subject is in focus, and objects in the foreground and background of the photo may appear blurred.

You need to be careful not to set too large of an aperture when you’re taking a photo, because one area of the subject may be in focus, and another area isn’t. If you’re going for that as an artist effect it’s one thing—it’s quite another to ruin your shot when you realize a critical detail is blurred.

A photo with a large depth of field means everything in the photo is in sharp focus, from the foreground to the subject to the background. Large depth of field in photos are produced by smaller aperture sizes, such as f-25.

As a side note, if you’re using a larger f-stop setting, you’ll need to use a tripod, or at least have your camera on a solid surface and use a remote to fire your shutter. This is because larger f-stops require more exposure than small f-stops do. Anytime you need a longer exposure, you risk getting camera shake and ruined photos.